书信 letter mail e-mail
通知 notice notification announcement
Dear Sir or Madam，
To whom it may concern，
notice/ announcement 通知
make complaint about sth./ complain about sth./ dissatisfaction 报怨
ask for information/details/advice about sth. 询问
make an apology/ apologize to sb. 道歉
express appreciation/thanks/gratitude 感谢
invite sb. to do sth./ invitation 邀请
recommend/ recommendation 推荐
congratulate sb./ congratulations 祝贺
write a reply 回复
appeal for sth./ proposal/initiative 建议请求
apply for a position/job/ further study 申请
resignation/ quit 辞职
I think the picture conveys a thought-provoking point.
The picture， I think ， conveys a thought-provoking point.
The picture， I think ， conveys a thought-provoking point （that...)
主语的确定 决定了 doing是否好写！
在哪里：in the picture/ in the center of the picture
谁：a man/a woman
In the sunshine stands an American girl.
• In the sunshine stands an American girl, wearing Chinese traditional clothes and smiling.
• In the bright sunshine，as is obviously manifested above， stands a charming and stunning American girl, wearing colorful Chinese traditional clothes of the minority and smiling like a delicate lily-flower.
• In the darkness stands a candle.
• In the darkness stands a candle, spreading brightness.
• In the deep and heavy darkness happily stands a remarkably tiny candle, spreading glowing brightness around itself.
man= sportsman athlete player runner student goalkeeper forward concert-goer phone-lover Beckham-fans goal-guard
2 men= 2 crazy fans 2 insane fans
woman=lady ,young lady
person= tourist vistor viewer
the disabled, the handicapped,
the physically challenged
the mentally challenged
similarly/ likewise (类似地)
however/yet/but/on the contrary/unfortunately/ironically（相反地）
cooperation n. cooperative adj.
collaboration n. collaborative adj.
collective effort 共同的努力
joint effort 共同的努力
community spirit 团队精神
chart/ graph/ diagram 的分类:
bar chart/column chart 柱状图
table/ statistic table/ Excel 表格
pie chart 饼图/扇图
line chart/ line graph/ curve chart 曲线图/折线图
变化:changes/variations/the trend of variation
关于:about/concerning/regarding/respecting/in regard to/in respect to
increase My turnover increased spectacularly.
show/witness an upward trend The consumption of chicken showed an upward trend，exceeding/overtaking/surpassing that of lamb in 1980
shoot up The proportion/percentage of students from England shot up to 76% in 2009.
surge The Freedom Party's electoral support surged from under 10 percent to nearly 17 percent.
soar The spending on research soared to 2.7 million pounds in 1990.
fall Other workers’ salaries saw a fall from 28% in 1981 to only 15% of spending in 2011.
dip The figure dipped to only 4% for much of his period, which was the lowest in the figures for these countries.
show/witness a downward trend The consumption of lamb witnessed a downward trend.
slump fall suddenly Net profits slumped by 41%.
plummet decrease quickly by a large amount The average price of tennis racquets plummeted to 79 pounds in 1990.
plunge decrease quickly and suddenly The number began to plunge in 2010
fluctuate （该词永远不能使用被动形式） fluctuate between A and B.
fluctuation In spite of some fluctuations in the expected percentages, the proportion of older people will continue to rise in the next two decades.
We witness a slight fluctuation during the period of 2010 to 2015
remain the same The market share of American autos remained the same from 2008 to 2009.
remain stable at The market share of American autos remained stable at around 12% during the period of 2008 to 2009.
稳定地；逐渐地；缓慢地 steadily；constantly；continuously; slightly; slowly ；gradually；moderately；gently
快速地、 急剧地、很大地 sharply；dramatically；drastically； steeply； spectacularly；substantially；tangibly；remarkably；amazingly； tremendously