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考研翻译三大结构及其翻译方法

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作者:因情语写

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    定语从句的翻译

    主要表现: 名词(名词性代词 those, some, all 等)+that, which, who, whom,whose

  • Space and oceans are the new world that scientists are trying to explore.
  • 太空和海洋是科学家们努力探索的新领域
  • His laughter, which was infectious, broke the silence.
  • 他那富有感染力的笑声打破了沉寂。
  • Those who have never tasted what is bitter do not know what is sweet.
  • 没有吃过苦的人不知道什么是甜。
  • The boys whose names were called stood up.
  • 叫道名字的男孩们站了起来。

 

 (0461) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.
(0462) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.
(0463)The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.
(0464) Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.
(0465) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce farreaching consequences for the culture of a society.

     特殊表现 1

  • 名词+省略引导词(直接跟了一个从句)

I collected some books you don't have.
I collected some books (that) you don't have.
我收藏了一些你没有的书
I just met a lady I saw last week.
I just met a lady (whom) I saw last week.
我刚遇到一位女士,上周我见过她

(9771) Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.
(9772) Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.
(9773) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the
consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.
(9774) Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
(9775) When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.
(0747) On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.

    特殊表现 2

  • 时间名词 + when 

He told us the date when he would finish his work.
He would leave Beijing when he finished his work.
He told us the date when he would finish his work.
他告诉了我们他将要完成任务的时间。
He would leave Beijing when he finished his work.
当他完成工作,他就会离开北京。 

     特殊表现 3

  • 地点名词 + where

She's going home where she can rest.
她要回家了,在家里她可以休息。 

(1049) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such ,within reason.
(1348) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce form into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such.

    特殊表现 4

  • reason + why

 That's one of the reason (why) I ask you to come.
这就是我请你来的原因之一

(1446) It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

    特殊表现 5

  • as 引导定语从句
  • 主要有: the same... as..., such...as..., as...as..., so...as...等as 引导的限定性定语从句。

 American speak the same language as is spoken in Great Britain.
美国人说的跟英国人说的是同一种语言。
Don't read such books as you can't understand.
不要看那些你看不懂的书。
I am ready to answer as many questions as you may raise.
我愿意回答你们可能提出的所有问题。

  •  as 引导定语从句
  • as 也可以引导非限定定语从句, as 在从句中充当主语、宾语或者表语。

The Great Wall, as we all know, is one of the eight wonders on the earth.
众所周知的长城是地球上的八大奇迹之一。
He was late, as is often the case.
他迟到了,这是经常的事情了。
As has been said before, grammar is not a set of dead rule.
正如以往所说,语法不是一套死规则。

(1650) As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.

     特殊表现 6

  • 介词+which/whom

This is the book for which you asked.
这就是你要的书。
=This is the book (which) you asked for.
I don’ t know the person with whom you talked just now.
我不认识刚和你说话的那个人。
=I don’ t know the person whom you talked with just now.

     定语从句前置

    前置

    即:把定语从句翻译到它所修饰的先行词前,并常常用“的”来连接。

例 1(2003, 61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.

    subject

  • 名词:
  • 动词:
  • 形容词:

     peculiar

  • Languages are peculiar to humans.

(0072) Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.
(9675) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.
(9974) There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research
techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.
(1548) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. 

 例 2(2004, 62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.

    oblige

  • be obliged to sb.感谢,感激
  • be obliged to do sth.被迫做…
  • I'm much obliged to you for helping us.
  • I was obliged to abandon that idea.

 

  • obligate:强迫,
  • be obligated to do sth.:有责任做…
  • He felt obligated to help.

 

  • obligation

 

  • 前果后因,用“之所以…是因为…”的句型。

 

  • lost lose loss
  • at a loss
  • take a loss

 例 3(2006, 50) They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.

    reflection

  • reflect: trees reflected in a lake:湖中树的倒影
  • How much you're paid reflects how important you are to the company you work for.
  • reflect on/upon: He had time to reflect on his successes and failures.

 例 4(2011, 46) Allen's contribution was to take an assumption we all share--that because we are not robots we therefore control our
thoughts--and reveal its erroneous nature.

  • Allen

    人名地名等专有名词: 遵照习惯、按照音译、万不得已,抄英语

  • Clinton 克林顿 客淋炖
  • Galileo
  • Greeks
  • Old Continent
  • Socratic
  • Darwin
  • Darwinism
  • Beethoven
  • Atlantic
  • Pearson
  • Tylor
  • Whorf
  • Allen
  • Georgia
  • Maine
  • David Graddol
  • Boas and Sapir
  • 博阿思,鲍,斯,
  • 萨,撒,
  • 萨丕尔,
  • Joshua Greenberg
  • Chomsky
  • Greenbergarian

     英语二出现的人名地名等

  • Ted Ning
  • Boulder agency
  • Google
  • Silicon Valley
  • Britain, Canada, Australia
  • Broadway
  • Nobel winner

(2011, 46) Allen's contribution was to take an assumption we all share--that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts--and reveal its erroneous nature.

  • erroneous
  • error
  • errorless

 

  • 精读、翻译练习中记单词,最好把这个单词的多义(常见的多义)、词组、用法、派生都搞清楚。
  • 复杂的同位语从句,后置的话,可以用“即:”来表达。

    定语从句:前置

    小结一:如果定语从句结构简单,信息负载量比较小,翻译的时候,前置。

前置,例 1
(2003, 61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms
to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.
前置,例 2
(2004, 62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.
前置,例 3
(2006, 50) They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.
前置,例 4
(2011, 46) Allen's contribution was to take an assumption we all share--that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts--and reveal its erroneous nature.

    定语从句:前置

    小结二:前置把定语从句翻译到它所修饰的先行词前,并常常用“的”来连接。

    定语从句后置

    后置条件:如果定语从句结构复杂,前置太冗长,翻译不通顺,怎么后置?

例 1(1997, 71) Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.

  • 事实上, 它不是;因为它…(不通顺 × )

    代词所指

    在考研翻译中,碰到代词怎么办

    方案一

    1. 可以直接对应为汉语代词试试,前提是译文要通顺。
    2. 如果不通顺,则需要指代明确,尽可能地用指代到的名词翻译。这时,需要往前看,根据“就近和一致原则”来确定。
    3. 万不得已,可以直接用“这,这种情况、这种说法、这种观点”等来翻译。

(0361) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.
(0462) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.

    方案二

    1.直接对应——适合第一、二人称
    2.指代明确——第三称代词,要小心
    3.用“这种情况/观点/说法”等——It, This, That

    常考动词

  •  assume,
  • believe,
  • assert,
  • claim,
  • maintain,
  • accept,
  • contend,
  • argue,
  • prove,
  • validate,
  • demonstrate,
  • state,
  • point out,
  • be convinced that…

例 1 There be 句型 人们(我们、大家) 对…有…
(1997, 71) Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an
agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.
例 2
(2001, 73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.
翻译中单词的意思是由上下文决定的,一旦我们发现直接翻译不通顺,就一定要关注上下文,并且适当用一些同义词替换,或者适当引申一下。 

     同义替换,适当引申

  • Don't move.

不许动!

  • Share prices moved ahead today.

股票价格今日上扬。

  • The story of their sufferings moved us deeply.

他们的苦难经历深深打动了我们。

  • Work on the new building is moving quickly.

新大楼的工程进展得很快。

例 2
(2001, 73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.

  • pieced together
  • the work
  • produce
  • a unique millennium technology calendar
  • the latest dates

例 3
(2001, 71) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.

    There be 句型的翻译

    1.首先翻译英语中的状语,再加“有”。
    2.增加“人们、大家、我们”等汉语的泛指主语。
    3.直接用动词“有、出现、存在”等开头。

例 4
(2005, 48) This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.

  • alone

 The shoes alone cost me 1000 Yuan.
(1546) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent

例 5(2003, 62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

     考研翻译解题核心策略

  • 拆分:划竖线,断开句子
  • 拆分大原则: 1.拆出主句,分清从句 2.拆出主干,分清修饰

________________________________________________
________________ ________ ∣ _____________________
______ ___∣____ _________∣ _____________________
______ ___∣____ _________∣ __________∣_________

  • 拆分小原则:

    1. 连词
    2. 引导词
    3. 介词
    4. 分词
    5. To
    6. 标点符号
    _ ∣ __ ∣ __∣__ ∣ _ ∣ __ ∣__ ∣ __ ∣_
    7.不要把单个单词拆分出来。

(0361) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.

  • 拆分(划竖线) 的目的:

    重合考点,提高分数 

    _____________________________________________
    ______ ___∣____ _________∣ __________∣_________
    _________________________∣ _____________________
    ______ ___∣____ _________∣ _____________________
    ______ _________ _________∣ __________∣_________
    ______ ___∣____ ___________ __________∣_________

(0547 ) In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.

例 5
(2003, 62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena. 

  • intellectual:智力的,知识的;知识分子
  • intellect:智力,理解力;有高智慧的人
  • intelligence:智力,智慧;情报
  • intelligent:聪明的,有才智的
  • enquiry
  • inquiry 是名词形式

           inquire 是动词形式

  • 询问
  • 探索,研究,探究
  • acquire
  • require

     定语从句后置,一般要重复先行词;如果找不到先行词,可以用代词:

    reason 名词用: 动词用:

  • reasoned:理性的
  • reasonable:合理的
  • reasoning:推理;推理的

     小结
    如果定语从句结构复杂,信息负载量大,翻译的时候,后置;这时,可以和前面的主句分开,另起一句话,有时候需要重复先行词,或者用代词来重复。

后置,例 1
(1997, 71) Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.
后置,例 2
(2001, 73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.
后置,例 3
(2001, 71) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.
后置,例 4
(2005, 48) This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.
后置,例 5
(2003, 62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

     状语从句的翻译

  • 状语从句的特点是在翻译中的位置很灵活,不太容易构成翻译的难点,但是,是重点。

      六大状从!

     1.时间状语从句

     主要表现:
     when(当…的时候),
     whenever(每当…),
     as(当…时,随着),
     while(在…期间,正当…的时候,在…的同时)
     since(自从…),

  • It has been more than two years since we parted last time.(since引导从句)
  • She moved to London last May and has since got a job on a newspaper.(since单个副词作状语)

     before(在…前),
     after(在…后),

I have met him before.(before单个副词作状语) 

     once(一旦…),
     until, till(直到…才, 如果不…),
     as soon as(一…就)

     特殊表现:

     the moment, the minute(一…就),
     immediately, every time(一…就),
     no sooner... than(一…就),
     hardly(scarcely)... when(一…就)

     翻译方法:

     一般翻译到主句之前。

1.(2001, 71) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots,/and cars with pollution monitors// that will disable them// when they offend.
2.(2004, 61) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.
(2004, 61) The Greeks assumed //that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, //which took root in Europe //long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

     2.原因状语从句

     主要表现:

     because(因为),
     since(既然, 由于),
     as(因为),
     now that(既然)

     特殊表现:

     seeing that, considering that,in view of the fact that(既然,考虑到,因为,鉴于),

  • Seeing (that) the weather is bad, we'll stay at home.

因为天气不好, 我们要呆在家里了.

     in that(因为,原因在于)

  • These two areas are similar in that they both have a high rainfall during this season.

这两个地区之所以相似,是因为在这个季节降雨量都很高。

     翻译方法:

     一般需要把原因状语从句翻译到主句之前,构成“前因后果”的顺序;如果原因太长,有时候也可以采用“之所以…是因为”。 

1.(2004, 62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.
(2004, 62) We are obliged to them //because some of these languages have since vanished, //as the peoples /who spoke them died out /or became assimilated/ and lost their native languages.
2.(2002, 62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.
(2002, 62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change //partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and //partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.
3.(2009, 49) Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.
(2009, 49) Since our chief business with them is //to enable them to share in a common life //we cannot help considering /whether or no we are forming the powers// which will secure this ability.

  • share in a common life

     在共同生活中分享
     在共同生活中懂得分享

  • forming the powers

     正在形成这种力量;
     具有了这种力量

  • secure形容词:

     feel secure about one’ s future 对自己的前途无忧无虑;
     have a secure job in the Civil Service 在政府部门有一份稳定的工作

  • secure动词:

     Secure all the doors and windows before leaving.要把所有门窗关好再出门。
     We’ ll need to secure a bank loan. 我们需要获得银行贷款。
     Secure this ability 确保这种能力, 使他们获得这种能力

     原因状语(短语):

     because of
     on account of
     due to
     thanks to
     attribute to
     owing to
     for the reason...
     as a result of

4. (2000, 73) Owing to the remarkable development in mass communications, people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas, while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.
(2000, 73) Owing to the remarkable development in mass communications, people everywhere are feeling new wants //and are being exposed to new customs and ideas, //while governments are often forced //to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.

     3.让步状语从句

     主要表现:

     though(虽然),
     although(虽然),
     even if(即使),
     while(尽管),
     whatever(无论什么),
     wherever(无论哪里),
     whoever(无论谁),
     however(无论怎样),
     whichever (无论哪一个),
     no matter(不论, 不管),
     whereas(但是, 却, 尽管) ,
     whether (不管, 不论)

  •  I’ m calling the doctor, whether you like it or not.

不管你愿不愿意, 我要打电话叫医生来。

     特殊表现:

     for all that(尽管),

  • She was strong, for all (that) she was so small.

     她身体强壮,却很瘦小。

     in spite of the fact that,
     despite the fact that(尽管)

     翻译方法:

     前用“虽然”, 后用“但是”。从句一般翻译到主句前面。

1.(2000, 73) Owing to the remarkable development in mass communications, people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas, while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.
2.(2007, 50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance //and make their own judgments.
(2007, 50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, //it is preferable for journalists to// rely on their own
notions of significance //and make their own judgments.

     it is preferable for journalists to:
     it is +形容词+ for sb. to do sth.

      形式主语翻译方法

     1) 置于句首, 用“…的是,…” 的句型。
     2)先翻译真正的主语部分,用“…,这是…的”的句型。

  • It is important for me to master translation.

     4.条件状语从句

     主要表现:

     if(如果),
     unless(除非,如果不)

  • I will not go to the party unless I’ m invited.

     如果他们不邀请我,我不会去参加舞会的。

     特殊表现:

     providing that, granting that, supposing that(如果,假如),
     provided that, granted that, given that, suppose that(如果,假如,假定),

  • Suppose it will rain tomorrow , what shall we do?

     假如明天下雨,怎么办?

  • Given that she is interested in children, I am sure teaching is the right career for her.

     考虑到她喜欢孩子, 我可以肯定教书是最适合她的职业.

     on condition that(如果, 只要),

  • I’ ll let you go on condition that you never waste money.

     只要你不乱花钱, 我就让你去。

     as long as, so long as(如果, 只要),

  • As long as you keep on trying, you will surely succeed.

     只要你一直坚持努力, 你肯定会成功。

     only, only that, only if(只要, 只有),

  • I would do it with pleasure, only l am not too busy.

     只要我不是太忙, 我乐意干这项工作。

     if only(但愿, 要是...就好了)

     翻译方法:

     翻译到主句前是最佳位置。

1.(2010, 46) Scientists jumped to the rescue /with some distinctly shaky evidence //to the effect //that insects would eat us up //if
birds failed to control them.
2. (1998, 74) If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.
(1998, 74) If the small hot spots look as expected, //that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, //a refinement of the Big
Bang called the inflationary universe theory.

      5.目的状语从句

     主要表现:

     so that(为了,以便),
     lest(以防),
     in case(以防, 以免),
     for fear that(以防)
     in order that(为了)

     翻译方法:

     前用“为了”, 后用“以免”。

1. He pushed open the door gently and stole out of the room for fear that he should awake her.
为了不惊醒她, 他轻轻推开房门, 悄悄地溜了出去。
2. He emphasized it again and again, lest she should forget.
他反复强调这一点, 免得她忘了。

 

3.(阅读真题2001年第5篇第8句)What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar.
confess v.
1 ~ (to sth/doing sth); ~ (sth) (to sb) 承认(错误、罪行等),供认,坦白

  • She finally confessed (to having stolen the money).

她最後招认了(偷了那笔钱)。

      6.结果状语从句

     主要表现:

so...that,
such...that,
to such a degree that
to such an extent that

     翻译方法:

     “结果是…, 如此...以致于...”, 直接翻译。

(0175) And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder—kitchen rage.
(0175) And home appliances will also become so smart //that controlling and operating them will result in //the breakout of a new psychological disorder—kitchen rage.

     被动结构的翻译

     被动结构的标志:

     be+V-ed

     基本原则:

     英语多用被动,汉语多用主动。

     被动结构翻译方法两种:

     1) 汉语用主动
     2) 汉语仍保留被动

     主动翻译

     1.主语不变,省略“被”字

  • The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.

会议定于四月六日举行

  • Water can be changed from a liquid into a solid.

能从液体变成固体

 

(2002, 62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change //partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed //and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.
(1999, 73)During this transfer, //traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies //designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.

     2.主宾颠倒,用by, in等介词后面的动作执行者充当主语

  • She was given a new pen by her father.

她爸爸送给她一支新钢笔。

  • Communication satellites have already been used for living transmission in our country.

我国已将通讯卫星用于实况转播。

 

(1997, 73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: //it invites you to think that animals should be treated //either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, //or with no consideration at all. 

     注意构词法:

     outset =set out
     outbreak=break out
     outburst=burst out

(2007, 46) Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed /in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, //rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.

     view…as…
     take…as…
     regard…as…
     define…as…

      3.翻译为汉语的判断句,用“是…的”这样的结构翻译。

     被动态的表现形式:
     be + V-ed
     是 + 的

  • This school was founded by Lao YU.

这所学校老俞创办

  • Printing was introduced into Europe from China.

印刷术从中国传入欧洲

 

(1998, 72)The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, //first put forward in the 1920s, //to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.

     4.用“我们…,有人….,人们….,大家…” 等泛指主语,或者增加“这”等词充当主语。

  • The issue has not yet been thoroughly explored.

人们对这一问题迄今尚未进行过彻底的探索。

  • She was seen to enter the building about the time the crime was committed.

有人看见她大致在案发时进入了那座建筑物。

 

(2009, 50) We are thus led to distinguish,// within the broad educational process /which we have been so far considering, //a more formal kind of  education -- that of direct tuition or schooling.

     被动翻译

    使用“被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为...所、由...来”等等。

  • Problems should be resolved in good time.

     问题应及时加以解决。

(2002, 63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated /only a little more than a hundred years ago, //and the selective role of the environment /in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual/ is only beginning to be recognized and studied.
(1997, 75) When that happens, it is not a mistake: //it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, //an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.

 


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