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考研翻译常见结构及翻译

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作者:因情语写

链接:https://www.proprogrammar.com/article/411

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    翻译长难句自学方法

    1.做翻译

    2.改译文

    分析结构、查阅词典、替换汉语、改变词序

    3.对答案,分析错误

  • 大意是否相同?
  • 修饰是否正确?
  • 语言是否通顺?
  • 用词是否恰当?

    参考《考研英语拆分与组合翻译法》 第四章相应句子的“组合”部分。

  • 错误分析:

    单词错:生词?多义词?
    结构错:主干弄错了?修饰看错了?哪个词导致的?

    4.记结果

  • 记住核心动词、常考名词、漂亮形容词和副词
  • 记住句型结构和它的翻译顺序
  • 看英语,说汉语
  • 看汉语,默写英语

     决定,决定之后就不会害怕!

    如何修改译文

    1.初次翻译:准确理解英语,用第一思维想到的汉语,写下来,越贴近原文最好。
    2.方法一:同义替换,找一些相同的说法来替换第一译文,千万不要改变意思。
    3.方法二:可以适当引申,增减,重复,用四字成语,照顾上下文的节奏和韵律。

  • 技巧的作用:可以让句子准确、通顺

    技巧一:词义选择,适当引申

home:
He left home at 16.
他16岁就离开了
The tiger's home is in the jungle.
老虎生活在丛林里.
New homes are for sale.
出售。
Greece is the home of democracy.
希腊是民主的发祥地.
light
This light is too poor to read by.
光线太暗不能看书。(名词)
Aluminum is a light metal.
铝是一种金属。(形容词)
Will you light the fire for me?
你替我点上火好吗?(动词)
move:
Share prices moved ahead today.
股票价格今日上扬
The story of their sufferings moved us deeply.
他们的苦难经历深深打动了我们。
Work on the new building is moving quickly.
新大楼的工程进展得很快。
They've moved into a bigger office in London.
他们已经搬到伦敦的一所更大的办公室去了。

    技巧二: 适当增加

Day after day he came to his work –sweeping, scrubbing, cleaning.
他每天来干活——扫, 擦地板, 收拾房间
This typewriter is indeed cheap and fine.
这台打字机真是美。
They wanted to ease the tension in the Middle East.
他们试图缓解中东的紧张局势。 

    技巧三: 适当减少

I put my hand into my pocket.
我把手放进口袋。
She listened to me with her rounded eyes.
她睁大双眼, 听我说话。
As it is late, you had better go home. (省略表示原因的连接词)
时间不早了,你最好回家去吧。
If winter comes, can spring be far behind? (省略表示条件的连接词)
冬天来了,春天还会远吗?
If I had known it, I would not have joined in to. (省略表示条件的连
接词)早知如此,我就不参加了。 

    技巧四:适当重复

We don't retreat, we never have and never will
我们不后退,我们从没有后退过,将来也决不后退
Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; writing an exact man.
读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,写作使人准确。
Some have entered college and others have gone to the countryside.
上大学的, 上大学了; 下乡的, 下乡了。(有的上大学了, 有的下乡了。)

     技巧五:词性转换

Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe.
火箭已经用来探索宇宙。
A careful study of the original text will give you a better translation.
仔细研究原文,你会翻译得更好。
A lot of my classmates are good singers.
我很多同学唱歌唱得好。
I am anxious about his health.
担心他的身体健康。
The pallor of her face indicated clearly how she was feeling at the moment.
苍白的脸色清楚地表明了她那时的情绪。

     技巧六: 四字成语

These statements may seem so commonplace that they may be hardly worth making.
译文a: 这些声明似乎太平常了, 几乎不值得发表。
译文b:这些说法似乎是老生常谈,不值一提。
Money may not be the root of all evil, but if it keeps us at night, it has become too important in our lives.
译文a:钱也许并不是所有罪恶的根源,但如果它使我们整个晚上睡不着觉,那我们就将它看得过重了。
译文b:钱也许并不是万恶之源,但要是使我们夜不能寐,那我们就将它看得过重了。
The buildings rise straight into the blue sky on either side of New York streets.
译文a. 纽约街道两旁的建筑一直上升到蓝蓝的天空。
译文b. 纽约街道两旁的建筑高耸入云,直指蓝天。

    如何修改译文:技巧巩固

例1
(0174) But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: "It will be the beginning of the long process of
integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”
(0174) But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration://“It will be the beginning of the long process of
integration //that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human //before the end of the next century.

 

start of man-machine integration: 人机一体化的开始
the beginning of the long process of integration: 一体化漫长过程的开始——漫长过程的开端, 漫漫长路的第一步
lead to a fully electronic human: 导致完全电子人——导致完全电子人的产生, 导致完全电子人的出现

 

例2
(0846) he opines (命题专家改写为believes) that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations, or in those of others.(命题专家把or后面这个短语删除了)

     考研命题要符合大纲

  • 句子长短的控制
  • 单词超纲与否的控制
  • 是否是“通识”内容

(0847) He protested(命题专家改写为asserts) , also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with metaphysics or (命题专家把这两个词删除了)mathematics.
(1448) Beethoven’ s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity (原文为intense crescendo) and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
(0846) he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage //of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, //and thus enabling him to detect errors //inreasoning and in his own observations.

 

 this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage:
正是这个困难具有一种补偿性的优势
——这个困难反而具有了一种优势….,这刚好使他能够扬长避短。
——这个困难,使他不得不…,结果这反而成为了他的优点。
forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence:
使他能够长时间专注地思考每一个句子
使他能够长时间专注地思考每一句话
使他不得不对自己要说的每一句话进行长时间专注的思考
使他不得不对自己要说的每句话都经过长时间的认真思考

    名词性从句的翻译

    形式主语

    形式主语的翻译

    1.可以当成词组,翻译到句子最开头,用“据…”,“有人…”,“…的是”等结构翻译。

It is reported that…
It is taken that…
It is universally accepted that... 人们普遍认为
It is unanimously agreed that... 大家一致同意
It is alleged that... 据说
It was noted above that... 前面已经指出
It is important that…

    2.可以先翻译后面部分, 再加“这是…的”。这种结构最适合It is + 形容词+that…结构。

    形式主语:

例1
(0946) It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but
this effect is not a part of its original motive.
(0946) It may be said //that the measure of the worth of any social institution is //its effect in enlarging and improving experience;
//but this effect is not a part of its original motive.

 

the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect…
任何社会机构的价值的衡量是它的效果
衡量任何社会机构的价值是看它的效果
衡量任何社会机构的价值的标准是看它的效果
effect in enlarging and improving experience
看它在扩大和提高经验方面效果
看它在丰富和完善经验方面的效果
看它在丰富和完善人生经验方面的效果
the measure of the worth of any social institution is //its effect in enlarging and improving experience:
衡量任何社会机构的价值的标准是看它在丰富和完善人生经验方面的效果…………………………………………….所起的作用

 

 例2
(0550)In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say “United we stand, divided we fall” .
(0550)In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, //it is no exaggeration to say //“United we stand, divided we fall” .

 

例3
(0072)Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture
and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.
(0072)Furthermore, it is obvious //that the strength of a country‘s economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture
and industry, //and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.

 

例4
(0749) In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
(0749) In fact, it is difficult to see //how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution
//can do a competent job on political stories.

    同位语从句

    同位语从句的翻译

    同位语从句和定语从句的区别:

    定语从句的引导词 that 或 which在句子中用作主语或宾语,
    同位语从句的引导词that只起连接主句和从句之作用,不用作任何成分。
    I've got an answer that A is right.
    I've got an answer that surprised me a lot.

    I've got an answer that A is right.
    (同位语从句, that 不做成分)
    I've got an answer that surprised me a lot.
    (定语从句, that做定语从句的主语)

    同位语从句,就是对某些名词做进一步的解释的句子。
    定语从句,理论上说可以对任何名词做修饰。

    翻译方法

    1)把简单的同位语从句翻译到其修饰的词前面;
    2)把复杂的翻译在后面,单独成句,可以增加“这样、所谓的、认为,即、那就是”等词来作进一步解释,或者采用冒号、破折号等手段来解释。

(1146) Allen’ s contribution was to take an assumption we all share— that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts—and reveal its erroneous nature.
(0464)Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.
(0464)Being interested in the relationship of language and thought,// Whorf developed the idea that //the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.

    分词短语做状语的翻译:分词短语做状语,其逻辑主语应该是主干的主语;翻译的时候,可以把主干的主语增加到分词短语前面。 

(9774)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
(9774)Arguing from the view that //humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, //extremists of this kind think //that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
(0748) But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.
(0748) But the idea that //the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen //rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.
(1048)Time was when biologists somewhat overworked the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless species” .
(1048)Time was when //biologists somewhat overworked the evidence //that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, //or that they prey only on “worthless species” .

    倒装结构的翻译

    倒装结构的翻译:常常恢复正常顺序后,直接翻译。
    平衡倒装、 强调倒装

(0546) Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed –and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe.
(9875) Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.
(9875) Odd though it sounds, //cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence //of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, //and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.
(0362) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.
(0947) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.
(0947) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, //and only more gradually still was this effect considered //as a
directive factor in the conduct of the institution.
(0947) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted,
=the by-product of the institution was noted only gradually.
机构的这一副产品只有逐渐的才能被注意到。
人们只有逐渐地才注意到了机构的这一副产品。
and only more gradually still was this effect considered //as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.
=this effect was considered as a directive factor only more gradually still…
这种作用只有更加缓慢得才被视为指导因素
人们把这种作用视为指导因素的过程则更加缓慢
 

    插入结构的翻译

    插入结构

    考查学生是否有能力理解并翻译复杂句子结构。
    ____________ ∣______________
    ____主语____ ∣___谓语_______
    ____主语_____∣_插入语_ ∣_谓语
    插入结构常常可以照英语原顺序翻译;但有时候,还可以翻译到整个句子最前面。
    ___主语___ ∣ __插入语_ ∣___谓语___

(0174) But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: “It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”
(0365)Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture,” like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
(0365)Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture,” // like the concept of “set” in mathematics, //is an abstract concept //which
makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
(0465) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society.
(0465) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism //which, in its strongest form, states //that language imprisons the
mind, //and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society.

    强调结构的翻译

    强调结构:可以在翻译中增加“就是、正是、的确、确实、是”或者“到底、究竟”等词来加强语气。

That is the very textbook we used last term.
我们上学期使用的就是那本教材。
He did translate the novel.
他的确是翻译了那本小说。
It was Mr. Tang that gave Translation lectures on line.
在网上教翻译课的正是唐老师。

 

(0846) he opines (命题专家改写为believes) that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.

    特殊比较结构的翻译

    比较结构: more than系列

    1) more than+数词 翻译为: 多于…,….以上。

I have known him for more than twenty years.
我已经认识他二十多年了。 

    被动翻译

(2002, 63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated/only a little more than a hundred years ago, //and the selective role of the environment /in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual / is only beginning to be recognized and studied.

     2) more than+名词/动词 翻译为: 不只是…, 不仅仅。

Mr. Li is more than a teacher.

    前置

例3 (2006, 50) They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.

    3) more than + 形容词/副词 翻译为: 非常, 极其, 很。

Mr. Li is more than kind to us.

    4) more than+ can/could 翻译为:…不能…。

That is more than I can understand. 

    5) no more… than…=not any more than….

  • Mary is not more beautiful than Han Meimei.
  • Mary is no more beautiful than Han Meimei.
  • Mary is not more beautiful than Han Meimei.

玛丽不如韩梅梅漂亮。

  • Mary is no more beautiful than Han Meimei.

玛丽和韩梅梅都不漂亮(一样丑)。
 

    no more… than…=not any more than…. 表示对两者都否定,可以翻译为:…和….一样不,不…正如…不… 。

  • His grammar is no better than mine.

他的语法同我的一样不好。

  • He is no more a writer than a painter.

他既不是画家也不是作家。

  • I am no more a poet than he is a scholar.

我不是诗人, 正如他不是学者一样。

 

(0649) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.
(0649) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, //which governs his activity, //any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies //to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

    比较结构: As系列

     1) as…as…

  • My parcel is as heavy as yours.

    我的包裹和你的包裹一样重。

  • She is as much interested in music as ever.

    她和以前一样对音乐感兴趣。

(9971) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.
(9971) While there are almost as many definitions of history //as there are historians, //modern practice most closely conforms to one //that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.

    2) not so…as…翻译为: 不象…一样…, 不如…一样

    Reading is not so difficult as translation.

(0948) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing
with adults.
(0948) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them //the effect of our acts upon their disposition, //it is not so easy //as in dealing with adults.
(0646) I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic
(苏格拉底的) way about moral problems.
(0948) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them //the effect of our acts upon their disposition, //it is not so easy //as in dealing with adults.
=....it is not so easy to ignore as in dealing with adults the effect of our acts upon their disposition.

 

Reading is not so difficult as translation.
在与年轻人相处中,我们很容易忽略我们行为对他们性格的影响;但是这也不像在与成年人打交道中那样更容易忽略(我们的行为对他们性格的影响)。
……但是在与成年人打交道中,这种情况更容易发生。
 

    3) not so much…as…翻译为: 与其说…不如说…

  • He was not so much angry as disappointed.

    他与其说是生气, 还不如说是失望了。

    not so much A as B:
    与其说A, 不如说B

(9471) Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things
like improved techniques and tools.
(0546) Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed –and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe.
(9471)Science moves forward, they say, //not so much through the insights of great men of genius //as because of more ordinary things //like improved techniques and tools.

    特殊否定结构的翻译

    否定结构的翻译

(0650) They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.
(9774)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice. 

    1.部分否定: 所谓部分否定, 是指一些表“绝对, 全部”等意义的词如all, both, every, every-, many, entire, entirely, altogether, absolutely, wholly, completely等与否定词not搭配使用。 翻译为“并非所有、并不是都”。

  • All that glitters is not gold.

并非所有发光的都是金子。

  • Both the windows are not open.

两扇窗户并不都是开着的。

  • Everybody does not believe the rumor.

并不是每个人都听信这个谣言的。

(1850) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.
(1850) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, //we must remember further //that hosts of plays have been lost, //and that
probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

     2.全部否定:构成全部否定的单词和词组主要有以下这些: never,no,not,none,nobody, nothing, nowhere, neither(两者都不), nor(也没有, 也不), not at all (一点也不)。

  • He is no professor.

他根本不是教授。

  • None of my friends smoke.

我的朋友都不抽烟。

  • Our great motherland has never before been so prosperous as it is today.

我们伟大的祖国从来没有像今天这样繁荣昌盛。

    正确区分部分否定与全部否定:

    I don’ t know anything about her.
    (一无所知)
    I don’ t know everything about her.
    (并不全知道)

    None of the answers are right.
    (都不正确)
    All the answers are not right.
    (并非都正确)

    I don't know any of them.
    (全不认识)
    I don't know all of them.
    (并非都认识)

    3.双重否定: 双重否定是指同一个句子中出现两个否定词。
    翻译时候, 1)可以直接用汉语双重否定,
    2)也可以直接翻译为肯定句。

    常见的双重否定形式主要有

no…not, no (not)…without, no……but,
cannot but + v,
cannot help + v-ing,
without doubt,
without exception,
nothing less but(正是),
none but (除…外, 别无),
no one but (除了…外, 没有别人),
not…any but…(只不过, 仅仅)
have no alternative/choice but to do (除……别无选择),
There is no doubt that…,
There is no denying that…,
There is no question that……

 

Now no spaceship cannot be loaded with man.
现在没有任何宇宙飞船不能载人。(用汉语的双重否定翻译)
现在所有的宇宙飞船都可以载人。(用汉语的肯定结构翻译)

 

(0648) I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.
(0648) I have excluded him because, //while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, //he has not been charged with the task //of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.

    4.否定转移: 是指英语句子的否定形式(not)在前面主句或者主干的谓语动词上,而否定的信息焦点却是在后面的修饰语或者从句上。 翻译的时候,要把前面的主句或者主干直接翻译成肯定,进而否定后面的修饰语或者从句。 

    1)主句或者主干谓语动词是“否定词+think, believe, accept, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine, anticipate, figure等词”其实是表达“观点、信念、
猜测”,基本含义是“认为…不…”。

I don’ t think we’ ve met before.

 

 (0848) On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.
(0848) On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded //the charge made by some of his critics that,// while he was a good observer, //he had no power of reasoning.
He did not accept the charge as well-founded.他认为指责毫无根据。
(0646) I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic
(苏格拉底的) way about moral problems.

    2) 注意not…because…的结构: 并不是因为…才…

I don’ t teach because teaching is easy for me. 

    5.需要注意一些具有否定意义的词:

The specification lacks detail.
这份说明书不够详尽。
The error in calculation escaped the accountant.
会计没有注意到这个计算上的错误。
The newspaper accounts are far from being true.
报纸的报道远非事实。
Her beauty is beyond compare.
她的美丽是无以伦比的。
He is anything but a scholar.
绝对不是一个学者。
There is nothing unusual there.
那里的一切都很正常

 

 (1847) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.
(1847) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant //that the drama was a form of literature //which gave glory to Greece and Rome //and might yet bring honor to England.


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